New Gas Logo At the Pump in Europe

It’s already hard to remember on which side of the car is the gas cap (let alone opening it)…

Les carburants changent de nom : comment s’y retrouver

A partir du 12 octobre, des sigles remplaceront les noms actuels dans toutes les stations-service de l’UE.

Une signalétique unique va être mise en place dans toute l’Union européenne et dans sept pays voisins (Islande, Liechtenstein, Norvège, Macédoine, Serbie, Suisse et Turquie). Une figure géométrique et des chiffres seront dorénavant associés à chaque type de carburant.


  • Essence

L’essence sera reconnaissable grâce à un cercle entourant un « E » accompagné d’un chiffre indiquant la teneur en Ethanol (5 % pour l’E5 [l’actuel sans-plomb 98], 10 % pour l’E10 [le sans-plomb 95] et 85 % pour l’E85).

  • Diesel

Le diesel sera représenté par un carré avec à l’intérieur la lettre « B » suivie d’un chiffre indiquant la teneur en biocarburant. Le sigle « XTL » sera employé pour signaler le diesel synthétique, non dérivé du pétrole.

  • Carburants gazeux

Les carburants gazeux seront marqués de losanges portant les mentions « H2 » pour hydrogène, « CNG » pour gaz naturel comprimé,« LPG » pour gaz de pétrole liquéfié et « LNG » pour gaz naturel liquéfié.


Maryse Condé Wins an Alternative to the Literature Nobel

Maryse Condé Wins an Alternative to the Literature Nobel in a Scandal-Plagued Year

By Annalisa Quinn

Oct. 12, 2018

The Guadeloupean writer Maryse Condé won The New Academy Prize in Literature, a new prize established by a group of over 100 Swedish cultural figures as a substitute for this year’s Nobel in Literature, which was not awarded for the first time since 1949 because of a sexual misconduct scandal.

The New Academy Prize is accompanied by one million kronor, or around $112,000. The Nobel prizewinner would have received nine million kronor from the Swedish Academy, which intends to award the prize next year.

Ms. Condé is the author of “I, Tituba: Black Witch of Salem,” a historical novel about a black woman condemned during the Salem witch trials; “Segu,” set in 18th-century West Africa; “Windward Heights,” a Caribbean reimagining of “Wuthering Heights”; and other emotionally complex novels that reach across history and cultures.

“It is impossible to read her novels and not come away from them with both a sadder and more exhilarating understanding of the human heart, in all its secret intricacies, its contradictions and marvels,” Howard Frank Mosher wrote in his review of “I, Tituba” for The New York Times in 1992.

Born the last of eight children in 1937 in Pointe-à-Pitre, Ms. Condé wanted to be a writer since encountering Emily Brontë’s “Wuthering Heights” as a child.

“I decided that one day I would write a book as powerful and beautiful,” she said in an email. Nonetheless, she did not publish her first novel until she was nearly 40, she said, because, “I didn’t have confidence in myself and did not dare present my writing to the outside world.”

This prize, she wrote, will be “good for my morale.”

The two other finalists were the British fantasy and comic book author Neil Gaiman, and the Vietnamese-Canadian novelist Kim Thuy Ly Thanh, who publishes as Kim Thuy.

The New Academy Prize in Literature differs from the Nobel in several ways: Instead of the Nobel’s cloistered deliberations, the New Academy prize was selected by a mix of librarians, readers and judges. Swedish librarians nominated the first round of contenders, a public poll the next, and the ultimate winner was selected from three finalists by a panel of judges led by the editor Ann Palsson.

A fourth finalist was Haruki Murakami, the only one of the four considered a regular Nobel contender (according to betting websites, at least — official nominations are kept secret for 50 years). Mr. Murakami dropped out, according to the prize’s web page, because he wished “to concentrate on his writing, far from media attention.”

Perhaps in response to the Nobel’s sexual misconduct crisis, a measure of gender equality was built into the process: The top two male writers and top two female authors from the public vote were named finalists.

“This prize to me is so precious because it comes from the movement of citizens,” Ms. Ly Thanh said in a telephone interview on Tuesday, “It’s not a structure, an organization, something that is established. It’s a reaction from the population.” Ms. Ly Thanh said she doubted she would have been nominated for a Nobel Prize.

The New Academy Prize is also distinctive for including popular genre authors: for instance, fantasy novelists such as J.K. Rowling, nominated by librarians in the first round, and Mr. Gaiman are unlikely to ever win the Nobel, which tends toward authors of literary fiction or serious-minded nonfiction.

Mr. Gaiman praised the prize for its “willingness to look at who are the writers who are being read, who are doing quality work, and who, in whatever department they’re in, are changing the world and making people’s lives better.”

He added that Ms. Rowling “has had more impact on more lives, I would suspect, over the last two decades, than pretty much any writer who has won the Nobel Prize for Literature ever.”

The New Academy Prize has received some criticism in Sweden for a perceived lack of seriousness (“The only thing really worse than the old Academy is the new one, consisting of 117 Instagram celebrities with more or less vague connections to the cultural world,” wrote one Swedish columnist.) But the prize’s founder, the journalist Alexandra Pascalidou, told The New York Times in July that she was not hoping to replace the Nobel but push it to be more “contemporary, open to the world, inclusive, transparent.”

Guadeloupe is an administrative department of France, and Ms. Condé’s novels are written in French.

“I belong to a small island with no say on international issues,” Ms. Condé said. “Guadeloupe is mentioned only when there is a hurricane, but I have always been convinced we have a wonderful culture fabricated from various influences: Europeans, Africans, Indians, Chinese. Winning this prize would mean that our voice, the voice of the Guadeloupeans, is starting to be heard. It would be the beginning of a true Guadeloupean identity.”

A version of this article appears in print on , on Page C3 of the New York edition with the headline: Maryse Condé Wins New Academy Prize.


La France reconnaît l’usage de la torture en Algérie durant l’occupation coloniale

Christine Lagarde: Ending Harassment Helps the Economy

By Christine LagardeCorinne Delechat, and Monique Newiak

This International Women’s Day is bringing new calls to #pressforprogress on gender parity. Giving women and girls the opportunity to succeed is not only the right thing to do—it can also transform societies and economies.

Unlocking this transformative potential means pushing for more equal opportunities: for example, equality in legal rights for men and women, and equality in access to education, health, and finance. Just as important is the fundamental issue of ensuring a safe environment for all, including protection against harassment.

Our message is clear: Providing legal protection against sexual harassment creates an environment in which women are more likely to be economically and financially active.

In fact, new IMF staff research “What is Driving Women’s Financial Inclusion Across Countries?” finds a link between financial access and protection against harassment. We look at this connection empirically in surveys of 1,000 individuals in each of more than 140 countries.

Legal safety and financial inclusion

Women are less likely than men to gain access to financial services. That is especially so in emerging and developing markets, where financial inclusion scores are about 14 percent lower for women than for men.

Our research therefore looked into what drives access to financial services for women in particular. We found that women who live in countries with stronger protection against harassment, including at work, are more likely to open a bank account, borrow and save, and make use of financial services such as mobile payments.

These links are strong. Financial access for the average woman living in an emerging market or developing country is almost 16 percent deeper—that is, financial inclusion scores are higher—when legal protection is granted. For the average sub-Saharan African woman, the figure is almost 25 percent higher. Eliminating harassment and increasing women’s access to financial services can transform lives.

But the benefits don’t stop there. Promoting equality in opportunities can be an economic game changer. Increased financial access means more economic activity by women, including as entrepreneurs. This translates into higher economic growth and productivity, a more equal income distribution, higher profits for businesses, and greater economic stability.

Significant gaps in legal protection

Our study clearly shows that protecting women against harassment can ignite economic benefits across several dimensions. It is also a moral issue as highlighted by the #metoo movement, which has shown sexual harassment to be pervasive in many countries. Outrage has understandably erupted in many parts of the world.

These discussions are important and overdue, but they are only the tip of the iceberg. A detailed database and reports by the World Bank show that:

  • In 2017, almost 290 million adult women were not legally protected from sexual harassment, and more than 360 million women were not shielded from harassment in employment.
  • Legal gaps extend to the home. In almost a quarter of countries, there is no protection against domestic violence.
  • The lack of legal protection affects girls at an early age. In some countries the legal age of marriage is different for women than for men, and almost 100 million girls are not sufficiently protected legally from being married as a child.

Changing laws is not sufficient—it needs to be complemented by enforcement. Other policies also matter, and governments can act today. For example, fiscal policy can play a larger role through investments in transport safety and sanitation facilities for women and girls, and in support for victims of gender-based violence.

Continue the engagement

Together with our partners, the IMF is committed to working with governments around the world to identify policies that help women realize their potential. Aside from analytical work on the macroeconomics of gender, the IMF is expanding its country-level analysis and advice in this area. So far, we have studied and provided advice on gender equality issues in about one-sixth of our 189 member countries. The issues are multi-faceted, so the policies to address them should be too.

Just this week, we will publish a study on Nigeria showing that reducing gender inequality could increase real GDP growth by an average of 1¼ percentage points annually. We recommend a range of measures, such as strengthening and enforcing legal rights; increasing investment in infrastructure, health, and education; and policies to help reduce violence against women. Our advice to advanced economies also emphasizes the need for policies to help women participate in the economy, including well-designed parental leave, affordable and high-quality childcare, and tax policies that do not penalize secondary earners. And IMF-supported programs in Egypt and Niger include measures to empower women economically, such as investments in public nurseries and better public transport safety.

It is not enough to talk about gender equality on International Women’s Day. We need to continue to work to address this issue and keep it at the top of the policy agenda throughout the year.

We promise we will keep playing our part.